# Theory Seminar

## A fortnightly seminar series at IIIT Hyerabad focused on theoretical talks from computer science, communications theory, machine learning and natural sciences.

# Codes with Locality for Distributed Storage - I

Notes scribed by Girish Varma. Please make any corrections/additions by editing this page.

## Contents

## Error Correcting Codes

Error correcting codes is a fundamental tool used in various fields. They were primarily proposed for solving the problem of communication through a noisy channel.

Alice has a message $ m \in \{0,1\}^k $ and she needs to sent it to Bob through a channel. The channel is noisy because of which the message recieved by Bob, might have some bits changed. The communication problem is to design a system such that Bob can recover Alice’s message.

Alice can encode her message $m$ as a longer string $x \in \{0,1\}^n$ where $n>m$ by adding redundant bits. The encoding function $\text{Enc}:\{0,1\}^k \rightarrow \{0,1\}^n$, should be such that even if some $d$ bits of $x :=\text{Enc}(m)$ is flipped, Bob should be able to recover $m$ from the string he recieves (say $x’$). A necessary condition for this is that $\text{Enc}$ is a one-one function. For the decoding to happen, we will need more conditions on the range of this function. The range of $\text{Enc}$ is called a code, which we will denote by $\mathfrak{C}$.

There are two important parameters for a code called rate and minimum distance.

DEFINITIONMinimum DistanceThe minimum distance of a code $\mathfrak C$, denoted by $d\_{\min}$ is the minimum Hamming distance between any pair of codewords (elements of $\mathfrak C$). $$ d\_{\min} = \min\_{a,b \in \mathfrak{C}} d\_H(a,b) $$

EXERCISE If $\mathfrak{C}$ is a code with minimum distance $d$, then design encoding and decoding functions such that even if the channel flips $\lfloor(d-1)/2 \rfloor$ bits, Bob can recover/decode Alice's message.

DEFINITIONRateThe rate of a code $\mathfrak C \subseteq \\{0,1\\}^n$, denoted by $r$ is a fraction given by: $$ r = \frac{k}{n} \qquad \text{ where } k = \log | \mathfrak{C} | $$ Note that $|\mathfrak{C}| = 2^{rn}$ (assuming binary alphabet).

EXERCISE Show that: - If the code is $\\{0,1\\}^n$, $r=1$ and $d\_{\min} = 1$. - If the code is $\\{x \in \\{0,1\\}^n: x \text{ has even no of 1's} \\}$ then $r= 1 - 1/n$ and $d\_{\min} = 2$.

EXERCISE What is the rate and minimum distance of the code: $$\\{x \in \\{0,1\\}^{2n}: x \text{ has exactly n 1's} \\}.$$

## Linear Codes

Earlier we disscussed codes where the alphabet is binary $\{0,1\}$. Codes can be made with larger alphabets as well. Of particular interest is when the alphabet is a finite field $\mathbb{F}_p$. Note that the elements of $\mathbb{F}_p$ are $\{0,\ldots, p-1\}$ and there is a definition of addition and multiplication (modulo $p$). The code is a subset of $\mathbb{F}_p^n$ where $\mathbb{F}_p^n$ is the vector space of dimension $n$ over the field $\mathbb{F}_p$.

DEFINITIONLinear CodesLinear codes are codes where $\mathfrak{C}$ is a subspace of $\mathbb{F}_p^n$. That is it is closed under the operation of scalar linear combinations.

EXERCISE If $k$ is the dimension of the subspace $\mathfrak{C}$, then the rate of the code $r= k/n$.

An interesting property of the linear code is that the minimum distance has an alternative characterization.

EXERCISE Let $$ w\_\min = \min\_{c \in \mathfrak{C} \setminus \\{ 0 \\} } |c| ~~\text{ where } |c| \text{ is the number of 1's in } c $$ Show that for a linear code $w\_\min = d\_\min$.

For linear code, the encoding function is a simple matrix multiplication. This is because the linear code $\mathfrak{C}$ forms a subspace of $\mathbb{F}_p^n$ say of dimension $k$. Hence $\mathfrak{C}$ has $k$ linearly independent basis vectors that span it.

DEFINITIONGenerator MatrixGenerator matrix $M$ of $\mathfrak{C}$ is a $k\times n$ matrix with $k$ linearly independent vectors as the rows. Hence any message $m \in \mathbb{F}\_p^k$ can be encoded by doing the matrix multiplication: $$ \begin{bmatrix} m_1, m_2, \cdots, m_k \end{bmatrix} \times \begin{bmatrix} M_1\\\ M_2\\\ \vdots\\\ M_k \end{bmatrix} $$ where $M_1,\ldots, M_k$ forms a basis of $\mathfrak{C}$.

DEFINITIONSystematic Generator MatrixSystematic Generator Matrix is a Generator Matrix where the first $k\times k$ part is an identity matrix. $$ G = \begin{bmatrix} ~ I\_{k\times k} ~ | ~ P\_{k\times n-k} ~\end{bmatrix} $$ If the message is encoded using such a matrix, the first $k$ bits are exactly the bits of the message and the last $n-k$ bits are called parity bits, which adds redundancy for recovery.

EXERCISE Prove that every linear code has a systematic generator matrix.

## Rate vs Distance Tradeoffs

The rate $r$ of a code $\mathfrak{C} \subseteq \mathbb{F}_p^n$, is a measure of the number of codewords. With such a code, we can reliably sent a message of length $k=rn$, using $n$ usage of the channel, as long as the channel introduces noise in atmost $d_\min$ bits. Hence we would like $k$ (or $r$) as well as $d_\min$ to be large. However larger $k$ imposes limits on how large $d_\min$ can be.

LEMMA Let $T \subseteq \\{1,\ldots, n\\}$ such that $|T| = n-d\_\min + 1$ then $G|\_T$ is full rank.

LEMMA Let $T \subseteq \\{1,\ldots, n\\}$ such that $\text{rank}(G|\_T) \leq k-1$ then $d\_\min \leq n - |T|$ with equality iff $T$ is the set of largest cardinality.

LEMMASingleton BoundFor any code with rate $r$, minimum distance $d\_\min$ and $k:= rn$: $$d\_\min \leq n-k+1$$

## Reed Solomon Codes

DEFINITION$(n,k)_q$-code$\mathfrak{C}$ is an $(n,k)_q$-code if $\mathfrak{C} \subseteq \\{0,\cdots q-1\\}^n$ and $|\mathfrak{C}| = q^k$.

Reed Solomon code is an $(n,k)_q$-code for $n < q$ that achieves the Singleton bound.

DEFINITIONReed Solomon CodeLet $\\{ \alpha_1, \ldots, \alpha_n\\} \subseteq \\{0,\cdots p-1\\}$. Reed Solomon code is the linear code (or subspace of $\mathbb{F}_p^n$) defined by the generator matrix \begin{bmatrix} 1& 1& \cdots& 1\\\ \alpha_1 & \alpha_2 & \cdots & \alpha_n\\\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \vdots\\\ \alpha_1^{k-1} & \alpha_2^{k-1} & \cdots & \alpha_n^{k-1} \end{bmatrix}

EXERCISE Show that the Reed Solomon code has minimum distance $$ d_\min = n - k + 1 $$

## Codes for Distributed Storage

In this section, we will address the problem of distributed data storage. Suppose we have $n$ storage servers which are prone to failures. We would like to store the data such that even if one server goes down, we can recover the data. A very simple approach will be to store copies of the data (say of size $k$) in each of the servers. But this approach is highly inefficient since the total storage used is $n\times k$.

EXERCISE Assume the data is a $k$ bit string. Propose an approach that uses only $k+2$ bits of total storage using Reed Solomon Codes.

Another important requirement of such storage systems is that, we need to be able to recover every bit of the codeword by looking at only few (say $t$) other positions in the codeword.

DEFINITIONLocally Recoverable CodesA code $\mathfrak{C} \subseteq \\{0,1\\}^n$ is $t$-localy recoverable, if for every $i \in [n]$ there exists a set $S\_i = \\{ a\_1, a\_2, \ldots, a\_t \\} \subseteq [n] \setminus \\{ i \\}$ and $\\{ \alpha\_j \\}\_{ j \in [t] }$ such that for every codeword $c \in \mathfrak{C}$ $$ c\_i = \sum_{j \in S\_i} \alpha\_i c_j $$ $t$ is called the information locality parameter of the code.

LEMMASingleton Like Bound for Localy Recoverable CodesFor any $(n,k)\_q$-code with minimum distance $d\_\min$ and information locality $t$ $$ d\_\min = n- k + 1 - \left\lceil \frac{k}{t} - 1 \right\rceil $$